About this guide
This guide provides examples of citations for a variety of different types of sources. If you do not find the information you need here, try one of the following resources:
Citation Manual of the American Psycholocial Association, 6th edition (available in the GCU Library)
Using Cite Tools in Databases
Many databases provide tools to help you cite the sources you find.
EBSCO Cite Tool:
Once you locate an article that you like:
- Click the Cite button located on the right side of the page in the Tools section
- A box will display above the article title with the APA 6th edition formatted citation in it. Copy this citation
- Paste the citation into your document.
- Double-check the citation for accuracy and proper APA formatting.
ProQuest Cite Tool:
From the list of search results:
- Click on the Citation/Abstract link for the article that you want to use.
- On the page that opens, click on the Cite button found near the top of the page. This will open a new window.
- Make sure that APA 6th is selected as the Citation style in the drop-down menu.
- Copy and Paste the citation in the box.
- Double-check the ciation for accuracy and proper APA formatting.
On This Page
Citing Sources is more than just creating a Bibliography! Whenever you use another person's language, ideas, or other original content, you need to acknowledge this both within the body of your paper using in-text citations and at the end of your paper in the bibliography.
Follow the links below to see examples of references for different types of materials.
When possible, examples used are taken from the Grand Canyon University American Psychological Association [APA] Style Guide for Writing, which can be found online in the Student Success Center.
|In-text Citations||GCU Lecture Notes||Media (Music, Video, Images)|
|The Bible||Journal Articles||Reports from Universities, Organizations, & Corporations|
|Books & Book Chapters||Legal Sources||Web Pages|
In-text citation are used in the body of the paper to give credit for another person's language, ideas, or for the use of other original content. Basically, any time you quote, paraphrase, or provide a summary, you must include an in-text citation.
- In-text citations should include the author and the publication year.
- For a direct quote, you must also include the page number.
- Citations can either be placed at the end of the sentence or can be incorporated into the sentence
For a work by one author:
Researchers have concluded that food and comfortable setting were more important than games available to most students (Liu, 1999).
According to Liu (1999), researchers have concluded that food and comfortable setting were more inportant than games available to most students.
For works by two authors:
(Walker & Allen, 2004)
According to Walker and Allen (2004)...
For works by three or more authors, refer to the GCU APA Style Guide for Writing.
Citing the Bible
According to the APA, the Bible is considered a classical work and, as such, does not require a reference list entry. All that is required is an in-text citation.
For a general reference to the Bible, place the version in parentheses after the word Bible in the sentence.
The Bible (King James Version) was reviewed for descriptions of the afterlife.
For paraphrases or quotes from the Bible, include the chapter, verse, and line number in the in-text citation.
Example with paraphrase:
In 1 Peter 5:5 (King James Version) we are told to submit to our elders, while all of us are exhorted act with humility as God gives grace to the humble.
Example with quote:
With regard to humility, the Bible says the following: "Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder. Yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble" (1 Peter 5:5, King James Version).
For more information on citing the Bible and classical works, see Section 6.18 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or "Happy Holiday Citing: Citation of Classical Works" on the APA Style blog.
Citing Books & Book Chapters
Citing an Entire Book:
- Note that the title of the work is in italics and only the first word, the first word in the subtitle, and proper nouns and capitalized.
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Daresh, J. C. (2004). Beginning the assistant principalship: A practical guide for new school administrators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
Citing a Chapter in a Book:
- Note that the citation includes the same information as used when citing an entire book, plus the chapter or entry title, the editors' names, and the chapter page numbers.
Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Citing a Book Written and Published by an Organization:
- Note that in the example used, the organization is both the author and publisher, so the word "author" is placed where the publisher's name usually goes.
Organization Name. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Citing GCU Lecture Notes
When you cite lecture notes from GCU Courses, you should use Grand Canyon University as the author.
For Lower-Division (100 & 200 level) Courses:
Lecture title. (date). PREFIX-number: Title of Course. Phoenix, AZ: Grand Canyon University.
What is the value of critical thinking? (2013). PHI-105: 21st Century Skills: Critical Thinking and Problem Solving. Phoenix, AZ: Grand Canyon University.
For Upper-Division Courses:
Author, A. A. (date). Lecture title [format of lecture such as pdf, html, etc.]. Retrieved from http://lc.gcu.edu/
Grand Canyon University. (2013). Lecture 5 [HTML document]. Retrieved from http://lc.gcu.edu/
Citing Journal Articles
Citing Journal Articles
Note that in a journal article citation, the journal title and the volume number are both italicized and that there is no space between the volume and the first parenthesis before the issue humber.
Journal Article - general
Author, A.A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx.
Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.
Journal Article with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxxxx
Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005) Volunteer support, marital stauts, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24,225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6188.8.131.52
Citing Legal Sources
Note: The APA bases legal citation on The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation
Cite the name of the case followed by the abbreviated published source, then the court date in parentheses.
Name v. Name, Volume number U.S. Page number. (Year).
Example: Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).
Note: 410 is the volume of United States Reports, abbreviated as U.S. The case begins on page 113. 1973 is the Court Date.
When citing statutes in-text, use the popular or official name of the act. In the reference list, be sure to include the source and section number of the statute. The year cited, should be the year of the compilation the statute was located in, which might be different from the year in the name of the act.
Sources are typically abbreviated.
Name of Act § Section number, Volume number U.S.C. § Section number (Year).
U. S. Copyright Law § 17, U.S.C. § 107 (2011).
Note: To add the Section (§) using Microsoft Word, place your cursor in the location you wish to insert the symbol in your document. Go to the Insert tab and click on Symbol in the Symbols menu. In the dialogue box that opens, click on the tab for Special Characters and click on the symbol to insert it into you document.
For more information on citing legal material, see Appendix 7.1 of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.
Citing Media (Music, Video, Images)
Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, etc.]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date).
Waldron, M. (1657). Soul Eyes [Recorded by Anthony Braxton Piano Quartet]. On Yoshi's [Streaming audio]. Berkeley, CA: Music and Arts Programs of America. (1984). Available from http://gcu.naxosmusiclibrary.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/stream.asp?s=150023%2Fgcunmlpd03%2Fq55913%5F103
Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.
Barron, D. (Producer), & Branagh, K. (Director). (1996). Hamlet. [Motion picture]. U.S.: Castle Rock Entertainment.
Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Streaming video]. Retrieved from http://...
American Psychological Associtation (Producer). (2012). Mindfulness and self awareness in coping with aging [Streaming video]. Retrieved from https://library.gcu.edu:2443/login?url=http://psyctherapy.apa.org
Owner/author. (Published date). Title of image [Media of image: photograph, painting, etc]. Retrieved from http://...
Michelangelo (1508-1512). Ceiling of the Cistine Chapel [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.wga.hu/index1.html
Citing Reports from University, Organizations, & Corporate Authors
University, Government Organization, or Corporate Author
Note: You may find that many reports from government organizations will list multiple departments.
Organization name.(Year). Title of report (Publication No. xx). Retrieved from http://...
U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf
Report from Nongovernmental Organization
Note: If the Nongovernmental Organzation is listed as the author, use the same format that you would use for a report by a government organization.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of report (Research Report No. xxx). Retrieved from Agency name website: http://...
Kessy, S. S. A., & Urio, F. M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction in Tanzania (Research Report No. 06.3). Retrieved from Research on Poverty Alleviation website: http://www.repoa.or.tz/documents/06.3_Kessy_and_Urio_.pdf
Citing Web Pages
General Web Pages
Referencing entire website:
If you are referencing an entire website rather than a specific page of a website, then you do not include an entry in the reference list. Instead, use the URL of the website for the in-text citation.
The International Council of Museums website provides many links to museums, codes of ethics, and the museum profession (http://www.icom.org/).
Referencing a specific page of a website:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://URL
Bell, M. A. (n.d.). Teaching web page evaluation using hoax sites. Retrieved from http://www.shsu.edu/~lis_mah/documents/TCEA/hoaxtable.html
When citing blogs, include the title of the blog entry, but do not put it in italics. Do not put a punctuation mark at the end of the URL.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work [format description]. Retrived from http:// URL
Lee, C. (2013, May 9). Punctuation junction: Hyphens, en dashes, and slashes [Web log]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/05/punctuation-junction-hyphens-en-dashes-and-slashes.html